Inflammation Plays a Role in Alzheimer’s disease

Researchers at the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) and the University of Bonn have shown that inflammatory mechanisms from the brain’s immune system drive the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. The research provides new insights into the pathogenetic mechanisms that may hold the potential for preventing Alzheimer’s disease before symptoms show up. Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative condition that eventually leads to dementia. The disease is associated with the aggregation of small proteins called “Amyloid-beta” (Abeta), known as “plaques,” that accumulate in the brain and are believed to harm neurons. Prior studies have shown deposits of Abeta trigger inflammatory mechanisms by the brain’s immune system. Researchers believe that deposition and spreading of Abeta likely precede any clinical symptoms by decades. Even so researchers do not fully understand the processes responsible and thus believe by doing so that effective treatments to target Alzheimer’s … Read more

Gum diease can lead to selective disarming of the immune system

A new study has shown that bacteria responsible for many cases of periodontitis causes dysbiosis in a two prong manipulation of the immune system. The researchers say that periodontal bacterium porphyromonas gingivalis acts on two molecular pathways to block immune cells’ killing ability while preserving the cells’ ability to cause inflammation. This protects these bacteria from being removed by the immune system and leads to bone loss and inflammation which is characteristic of periodontitis. The researchers say when inflammation occurs breakdown products are produced which causes dysbiosis and creates a vicious cycle. P. gingivalis is known as a keystone pathogen. Their presence may be relatively few in the mouth but they can exert a large pull on the overall microbial ecosystem. P. gingivalis doesn’t actually cause periodontitis but is responsible for causing the process that leads to it. The researchers believe that … Read more

Stem Cells Can Help Fight Inflammatory Disease

A recent study shows that stem cells found in mouth tissue can help relieve inflammatory disease. The stem cells studied are gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSC) which are found in gum tissue in the mouth. Similarly to other types of stems cells, GMCS develop into cells that effect the immune system. The study found two differet types of GMSC: those that arise from the mesoderm layer of cells during embryonic development (M-GMSC) and those that come from cranial neural crest cells (N-GMSC).  The two types of stem cells vary substantially in their benefits. N-GMSC was found to be easier to change into other cells include neural and cartilage-producing cells. N-GMSC was found to have more of a healing effect on inflammatory disease. When the researchers transplanted N-GMSC into mice with dextrate sulfate sodium-induced colitis, which is an inflamed condition of … Read more

Gingivitis Bacteria Manipulate Your Immune System

An interesting article appears in the Journal of Leukocyte Biology discussing how the bacteria known for causing gum disease–Porphyromonas gingivalis–can manipulate the immune system to disable normal processes that would otherwise destroy it.The article talks about how this bacteria causes the anti-inflammatory molecule Interleukin-10 (IL-10) which inhibits the function of T-cells which would otherwise help to fight off the bacteria. The researchers discuss how it is important to understand how gingivitis bacteria affect the immune system since more than 50% of adults over 50 in the U.S. develop periodontal disease. The researchers used cells from mice that were exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis and had some of them treated with an inhibiting antibody against IL-10 and the other portion of cells was not treated. The cells were then tested for interferon gamma production. The researchers found that an increase of interferon … Read more