Tag Archives | inflammation

Exploring Antibiotic Use with Lower Wisdom Teeth Surgery

An interesting article titled “Correlation of antibiotic prophylaxis and difficulty of extraction with post operative inflammatory complications in the lower third molar surgery” appears in the 2014 British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and written by J. Y. Lee and et al. (vol. 52, pp. 54-57). The article set out to investigate the correlation between antibiotic prophylaxis, difficulty of extraction, and postoperative complications of lower wisdom teeth. The authors say that indiscriminate antibiotic prophylaxis can lead to antimicrobial resistance and a shift in the microbial population. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of extraction of lower wisdom teeth performed at Korea University Guro Hospital over a two year time frame starting in January 2010. The authors only included cases in which cefditoren pivoxil was prescribed as an antibiotic. In addition, patients that were kept in a hospital due to postoperative complications were excluded from the study. The patients were divided into two groups those given antibiotics and those not given antibiotics. A total of 1222 extractions in 890 patients were included in the study. The authors found that overall the difficulty of extraction and post operative complications were significantly associated (p=0.03). In cases grouped by similar class of difficulty, it was found that there was no significant correlation […]

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Exploring Mandibular Wisdom Teeth Roots after Coronectomy

Coronectomy involves the removal of part of the mandibular wisdom teeth but retention of the root. It is believed to cause less risk to the inferior alveolar nerve than extraction. An article on this topic titled “Histological evaluation of mandibular third molars roots retrieved after coronectomy,” appears in the 2015 British Journal of Oral and Maxilofacial Surgery and written by Vinod Patel and et. al (vol. 52, pp. 415-419). In the article the authors sought to find out the pulpal and periradicular status of retained roots of mandibular wisdom teeth and histologically evaluated coronectomy roots that were removed because of persistent symptoms. It is possible the roots had become infected. A total of 21 patients (with 26 roots) were included in their study with persistent symptoms after the roots had been retrieved. Of the 26 symptomatic roots, radiographic assessments showed coronectomy had been sufficient in twenty, but a shard of enamel had been retained on the root fragment in six. All roots were retrieved with no complications except for 1 which had persistent dsyfunction of the nerve. In their discussion the authors sate “This report is seminal as it shows that all the roots retrieved had a vital vascularised pulp, and in all cases the […]

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Moving Towards a Clearer Diagnosis of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis

A group of researchers have recently used functional PET imaging to show that levels of neuroinflammation is higher in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis also commonly referred to as chronic fatigue syndrome than in healthy patients. Myalgic encephalomyelitis or chronic fatigue syndrome is a debilitating condition which is mostly characterized by chronic and disabling fatigue. Some patients feel that chronic fatigue syndrome trivializes the condition and prefer a name change. In a study in the Journal of Nuclear Medicine researchers found that levels of neuroinflammation markers are elevated in myalgic encephalomyelitis patients when compared to healthy patients. It had been suspected that neuroinflammation is the cause of the condition. In the study the researchers performed PET scans on nine people diagnosed with myalgic encephalomyelitis and ten people who were healthy. The patients were all asked to describe their pain, depression, cognitive impairment, and level of fatigue. They used a protein expressed by microglia and astrocyte cells known to be active in neuroinflammation. The researchers found that inflammation in certain areas of the brain such as the hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, midbrain, cingulate cortex, and pons were all elevated in a way that correlated with the symptoms. For example, patients who reported problems with […]

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Stem Cells Can Help Fight Inflammatory Disease

A recent study shows that stem cells found in mouth tissue can help relieve inflammatory disease. The stem cells studied are gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSC) which are found in gum tissue in the mouth. Similarly to other types of stems cells, GMCS develop into cells that effect the immune system. The study found two differet types of GMSC: those that arise from the mesoderm layer of cells during embryonic development (M-GMSC) and those that come from cranial neural crest cells (N-GMSC).  The two types of stem cells vary substantially in their benefits. N-GMSC was found to be easier to change into other cells include neural and cartilage-producing cells. N-GMSC was found to have more of a healing effect on inflammatory disease. When the researchers transplanted N-GMSC into mice with dextrate sulfate sodium-induced colitis, which is an inflamed condition of the colon, it was found that the the inflammation was significantly reduced The bottom line from this study is that stem cells found in gum tissue may have important applications to aid in disease and with health. The stem cells in the gum tissue may able to help in improving skin wound healing and helping to reduce scar formation. Of […]

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Loneliness can tax the Immune System

Interesting research has been conducted by investigators from the Ohio State University. The research links loneliness to a number of dysfunctional immune responses which suggests loneliness may adversely affect overall health. The results were based on a series of studies on two different groups: 1) a healthy group of overweight middle-aged adults and 2) a group of breast cancer survivors with an average age of 51. Loneliness was measured using the UCLA Loneliness Scale. The researchers measured presence of antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus in the breast cancer survivor group with 200 participants. Lonelier participants were found to have higher levels of antibodies against cytomegalovirus compared to less lonely participants. Further, those higher antibody levels were related to more depression, pain, and fatigue symptoms. No difference was f0und for Epstein-Barr virus antibody levels. Previous research has shown that stress can result in reactivation of these viruses and the researchers suggest that loneliness can be thought of as a chronic stressor. The researchers also looked at proinflammatory proteins known as cytokines. For this study 144 women from breast cancer survivor group were used and a group of 134 overweight middle-aged adults were also used. The researchers took baseline blood samples […]

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